Theoretical Background/Current Situation
of "Know-How"


Over the last fifteen years, exhaustive research has been conducted into the
undergarment technology by Mr.Hashimoto, with significant findings and vast
improvements to conventional patterns. Contracts have already been successfully
completed in Japan with leading Manufacturers and Trading Firms. International
Patent Rights have been obtained in fifteen different countries for legal
protection of the KNOW-HOW TECHNOLOGY.

Mr.Hashimoto and Madison International Marketing Inc. realize the necessity of
securing future possibilities for KNOW-HOW, despite the volatility of the fashion
industry. They will continue their exhaustive research into pattern making
technology and undergarment design.


Over 400 different samples of women's and men's conventional undergarments
available on the market, were collected for Mr. Hashimoto's study. In order to
check and work out the products' cutting patterns, all samples were skillfully
dismantled, using cutters and tweezers.These were then compared and
investigated to check initial characteristics of all products in view of
the total outward features, along with a detailed study as to how they were
attached and stitched together. The section extending from the waistline
through the waist and hips leading to the crotch, was examined in detail.
In particular, thorough examinations were carried out in order to determine
the exact width necessary to cover the male and female genital regions and
the delicately fines curves of the outergarments as well as the adequate
and modest curved lines, defining the base portion of the derriere.

Mr.Hashimoto devoted a great deal of effort in exploring the reasons as to why
women's panties and men's briefs and other hip-wrapping type undergarments
commercially available in Japan, were not functionally comfortable to wear,
until around the Spring of 1977. For the sake of his research and development,
Mr.Hashimoto purchased various undergarments, both local products from leading
manufacturers and imports from abroad, which have been on the Japanese market
during the period of one and a half years(from the Spring of 1977 to the fall
of 1978). He was absolutely determined to find an answer to the question;
"Why are conventional briefs uncomfortable to wear ?"

As a result of his investigations, Mr.Hashimoto was strongly determined to design
the newest and best possible products ... Spontaneously acceptable internationally.
He was driven to manufacture and sell the utmost comfortable undergarments ever
designed. The new product must be comfortable to wear with a harmonious smooth
fit, having abundant functionality that could lead to the fullest fitness to the
human bones, muscles, and fat tissues, furthermore adapting to represent beautiful
body lines.

It is necessary to further describe the history and background which led to his
determination to develop products featuring 3-vital characteristics. They are
BODY LINES" in any of the four different sizes (S, M, L and LL). As an unique
undergarment designer, he realized the need to make improvements based on the
clear and full understanding of what consumers truly demand. Mr.Hashimoto had
long experienced discomfort whilst wearing conventionally designed briefs.

Over a period of more than two decades, friends and acquaintances shared with
him their own experiences of discomfort when wearing conventional panties and
briefs. Therefore, none of the panties and briefs of leading manufacturers were
truly comfortable, functional or fitted to the body lines, and few of the famous
branded panties/briefs provided a true fit. Through numerous interviews and
information collected from various people, Mr.Hashimoto realized that the
products deserving the term "SUPERB FIT" were limited to only very few
brands. Maidenform, a reputable international manufacturing company, has
earned its excellent reputation and creditability by producing well fitting
panties/briefs. It is however, still interesting to see the comparisons in the
technologies and designs between Maidenform's products and Mr. Hashimoto's
KNOW-HOW products.

Many surveys were performed by selectively purchasing approximately 100 pairs
of briefs at a time, then distributing the products to many women free of charge
for their valued comments on the fit, merits and demerits of each product in
order to evaluate all samples. The results of vigilant research and evaluation led
to the determination to develop a completely 3 dimensional cutting and stitching
method for making undergarments, which fit perfectly to the human body.
Efforts were focused on the development of fully functional undergarments,
truly comfortable to wear, featuring a "SUPERB FIT"-garments feeling so
natural and smooth that the "wearer becomes almost unconscious of wearing".

Mr. Hashimoto has totally succeeded in revising conventional patterning into
the new 3 dimensional "SPHERICAL" patterning.


Strenuous and painstaking reasearch was performed in order to accomplish
development objectives. The product must be delivered to consumers through
a business operation which is to be conducted elaborately. Meticulous
investigation into the busisness to be undertaken indicated, that most
importantly, the greatest profit can be derived from a "good product".
In a business sense, the product must show optimal financial results to
the manufacturer - ideally profits of multiplication rather than addition.
Such a product must also be demanded by consumers. A new product to be
introduced into the market must address the dissatisfaction of consumers
with existing products. Finally, it must be a product which can be made
by any persons, but has not been provided unknowingly or due to repeated
futile attempts. The products to be developed are those included in the
category of expendables, that is, consumer necessities. Amongst the wide
variety of products demanded by the market, the product to be developed
must contain the following vital characteristics:

(i) Those products differentiated as goods which have a primary function
and are realizable by perfect theories and techniques.

(ii) Given today's "value for money" conscious consumers, goods are to be
comparable to conventional products in cost, yet superior to like
products of competitors in FIT, FUNCTION, and the BEAUTY of BODY

(iii) Goods which may be produced by anyone who understands the technical
theories concerned and becomes versed in the related techniques.


Mr.Hashimoto decided to dedicate himself to accomplishing success with his
inventions and techniques. His efforts matured into the KNOW-HOW techno-
logy, which has been evaluated by five major Japanese Trading Firms and he
has made six KNOW-HOW contracts with leading Japanese Manufacturers.

The Trading Firms are:

1. Mitsui & Co. Ltd., the world famous Japanese Company with a well
established history amongst the industrial and business circles of
Japan and listed on the stock market's First Section.
2. Sumitomo Corporation
3. Nichimen
4. Tomen
5. Sumisho Textile Co., Ltd.

The Manufacturing Companies are:

3.Mizuno Sporting Goods Co., Ltd.
4. Naigai Clothing Co., Ltd.
5. As Corporation
6. Charle Co., Ltd., dealers in high-grade women's undergarments.


By November 1985, the evaluation of Mr. Hashimoto's technology led to
agreements for licensing the technical theories of KNOW-HOW. Patent rights
have already been obtained for the technical theories of KNOW-HOW in 15
different countries. These include the U.S.A., Canada, Great Britain,
Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland,
Belgium, Denmark, U.S.S.R. and Japan. Two patent Rights have been obtained
in all countries, with the exception of Spain, which due to the government
regulations could obtain one Patent and three utility models (ie. separate
utility models for each style - bikini, standard and deep). The overall
cost of development and maintenance for filing and obtaining the Patents and
Utility Models have accumulated to a great amount of money. Mr. Hashimoto
has risked his livelihood and financial security for the development of Know-How.


Madison International Marketing, Inc. have made numerous achievements as
professionals in many fields. The following areas of achievement are merely
the tip of the iceburg. They are widely recognized as:

(i) Business Consultants.
(ii) Marketing Consultants.
(iii) Brains Outside Companies.
(iv) Professionals in handling Industrial Design (including Corporate
Identity Systems Designs for Corporate Images - C.I.)
(v) Experts in planning.
(vi) Developers and executors of projects for new business and new
commercial products.
(vii) Experts in Advertising and Publicity.

Due to his high creditability and good reputation in the business world,
Mr. Hashimoto was able to borrow substantial sums of money from banks for
business development. He also received the co-operation of lawyers and
patent attorneys for legal opinion and informative advice.


Elaborate research was conducted into a number of market variables, in
conjunction with a study of the human body structure. In the first year,
Madison International Marketing Inc., using their full capabilities, knowledge,
and resources, carried out extensive research on a number of significant
variables in relation to the production and marketing of the product.

These include the market, products, materials, sewing machines, prices
consumption trends, wholesalers and trading firms dealing in fashionable
undergarments, imported goods, and manufacturers and dealers concerned,
advertising, publicity catalogues and brochures. The exhaustive study of
products and related production techniques and theories.

The research was followed by another year of study on the structure of
human bodies, which was conducted precisely with reference to anatomical
and physiological data and to 38 living male and female mannequins of all
shapes and sizes. The postures and movements of the human body were
investigated from every angle in every possible state, thanks to the
understanding and full co-operation of the participants. Difficulties
were encountered in trying to persuade larger sized women to serve as
models, however, they consented and co-operated willingly.

Precise investigations on the structure of the human body were conducted
as follows:

1. Configuration of the male and female hips.
2. The changes in the configuration due to movements (ie beautifully
rounded hips vs excess flesh of the hips).
3. The fat defining the contour.
4. The structure of the muscle beneath the fat and changes due to
5. The bone beneath the muscle as related to the muscle.
6. The hipbone in its entirety.
7. The waist.
8. The base portion of the thighs.
9. The size of female and male genital parts, including the length and
width thereof.
10. Changes in all the above portions due to body movement.

Also investigated were undergarments which will fit smoothly and precisely
to the human body IRRESPECTIVE of the body being at REST or in
MOTION, or REGARDLESS of the body being in varying INTENSITIES
of MOVEMENT, so as to function effectively with the movement of the
human body, and represent beautiful body lines. Other features investigated
were the seams or laps of stitched rubber which invariably show up owing
to the configuration of a particular pattern or the method of stitching. The
aim was to minimize the visibility of seams or laps on the outer garment.
The ability to repair or re-use the product is also a vital feature, which
KNOW-HOW has taken into consideration, in order to ensure the enhanced
economy of the product.

The method of advertising and publicity for the developed product was
vital. This included the method to photograph, display and package the
products, catalogues, brochures, as well as the marketing techniques for
sales activities which have a great impact on the sales potential of the
products. Finally, planning is also important, in order to keep up with
fashion trends and to capture and maintain a wide market share.

The vast research and investigation efforts have accumulated a mass of
practical theories and techniques and most importantly, resulted in the
new products.The most distinctive and critical feature of the new products
developed by KNOW-HOW is that the "BASE POINT OF MEASURING


To fully utilize the characteristics of knitted fabrics, it is essential to correctly
understand, from a physiological and human body engineering viewpoint, the
overall structure of male and female bodies. For example, the configuration
of the human body due to movement. As patterns traditionally employed have
not taken these factors into consideration, they fail in fabricating the desired
spherical undergarments and, as a result conventional undergarments are
uncomfortable to wear, unattractive and fail to give a graceful appearance.
The following are morespecific reasons as to why conventional patterns are
not desirable.

1. No definite base point was set for measuring the undergarment.

2. The derriere was interpreted basically as a single sphere, rather than
taking the pair of buttocks into consideration.

3. The making of a spherical undergarment was based on the concept that
a fabric which is substantially rectangular, is made into a bag form
by creasing the periphery with use of a rubber member, thereby shortening
the length of fabric. Such a conventional concept fails to provide a
truly spherical undergarment.



Before proceeding to explain the technical theories, we will look at the
starting points of development which led to extremely important KNOW-HOW
THEORIES. The hips and the two bulges of the derriere, are combined to a
3 dimensional spherical region, resembling a cone which is elliptical in
cross section and partly cut away along a vertical plane. Since the
buttocks (derriere) moves dynamically and has a surface area freely varying
incessantly when the body is moving, has led to the three points of development.

1. How to provide a good fit at all times, despite the movement.

2. How to prevent the undergarment from displacement.

3. How to enable the undergarment to fully exhibit the functional
characteristics of knitted fabrics as a material.


First, research was directed to improvements in theories as follows:

1. Undergarments such as panties, briefs and girdles should be made
spherical resembling a fully inflated paper balloon so, when fitted
to the derriere, gives a spherical appearance.

2. The spherical undergarment must be made in such a shape, that when
removed from the body, it assumes a state resembling a crinkled
paper balloon. To ensure this feature, the buttocks are not to be
considered as a single sphere in combination, but as two bulges to
be individually wrapped with the corresponding portions of the
undergarment. Full consideration is to be given to the waist region
(from the upper hip region) and the base region of the buttocks,
which move incessantly relative to the hips.

3. The undergarment for enclosing the hips has three openings, that is
an opening for the trunk and two openings for the legs, and yet the
total undergarment needs to be spherical. When worn, the undergarment
must accommodate the derriere, realizing an appearance of a modified
cone with an elliptical cross section. Therefore, the garment itself
should be capable of stretching naturally to the contours of the
derriere for a smooth fit.

4. The overall configuration of the lower half of the body including
the abdomen region and the derriere may be described as a combination
of modified trigonal pyramids. While "M" size is taken as the standard
measurement, "L" size and larger sizes involve greater prominences at
the abdomen and the lower region of the waist. The configuration of
these regions involve various complexities, but nevertheless a definite
"RULE" has been found applicable to these complex shapes. When such
diverse elements are fully investigated and considered, the undergarment
functionally fittable to all sizes must be so shaped that the hip
covering portion has a curving-in contour effect in its entirety, and
the slight prominence of the waist is to be taken into consideration.


Unique theories have been developed by Mr. Hashimoto, in order to enhance
the beauty of the bodyline, including the Pull Theory, the Front Line
Theory, the Horizontal Theory and the Theory of Re-use or Repair.


The "Pull Theory" is most significant as it has made way for other vital
theories with respect to the KNOW-HOW technology, and most importantly,
it clearly distinguishes the KNOW-HOW patterns from competitors patterns.

The undergarments produced using the KNOW-HOW technology, takes the
shape of the derriere into full consideration. Since the furrow extends from
the central part of the derriere towards the pubic region with an increasing
depth, the fabric piece for covering the bottom of the derriere must be
so patterned and stitched as to cause a pulling effect, most greatly
towards the rear bottom center line. Therefore, when it comesto patterning,
the rear piece and the connector pieces are placed in butting position to
each other, the space is symmetrical with respect to the center line.
The stitching is most greatly on the center line of the rear piece, and
as a result an elongated depression is formed extending on the center
line of the rearpiece, conforming to the gluteal cleft between the derriere.
On the opposite side of the depression, the rear piece has curved portions
conforming with the bulges of the derriere. The curving-in contour
deliberately formed as a result of the "pull effect", enables the
undergarment to fit precisely to the curves of the body, providing
a graceful appearance.


The undergarment, when worn, produces a beautiful horizontal line around
the waist, despite various depths of panties/briefs(including all styles,
from bikini to the deepest types of undergarments covering the navel).
The total undergarment remains horizontal and functionally stable, when
viewed from any angle.

When it comes to cutting patterns, the prominences of the abdomen due,
to the underlying fat layer and the internal organs are taken into great
consideration. The upper end of the derriere fabric piece is to be so
shaped according to the style of the undergarment. The bikini type has
a horizontal shape and the deep-type has a curving-in (concave) shape.

In order to achieve the desired horizontal contour when the undergarment
is stitched together, the curving lines are precisely adjusted to the
degree of curving-in of the upper part of the fabric piece for the
derriere, accordingly to the style of the undergarment.


Further enhancements can be provided for all body shapes, realizing
perfect function and avoiding any possible negative effect to the natural
body line. The new technology can conform to the perfect shape that is
truly required for optimum underwear fitness.

When it comes to cutting patterns, the fabric pieces of the abdominal
and buttocks (derriere) are joined together at each of the lateral sides
of the body. These pieces need to be stitched together along a line
approximately with the same angle as the descending curve of the hip.
The resulting seam must be located at an optimum position, that will
provide a beautiful appearance.

The positioning of the seam varies in each case depending on the style
of the undergarment as follows:

(i) The bikini type has a seam positioned considerably towards the
front, wrapping up the buttocks (derriere) fully and beautifully
with one piece of seamless fabric.

(ii) The seam of the half type is positioned slightly towards the rear
from that of the bikini type, in order to ensure balance between
the front piece and the rear piece in the quantity of fabric.

(iii) The deeper standard type requires a larger quantity of fabric for
the front piece and the derriere, and is so designed as to present
a "beautiful oblique line"; matching the angle of the hip side
seams with that of the descending curve of the buttocks, without
noticeable seams showing when viewed from the front or back.

It should be noted, that the seam in conventional panties/briefs is
positioned at no definite point, but at random, without consideration
given to the look of the undergarment.

Another unique feature which distinguishes KNOW-HOW panties/briefs
from conventional designs is that the rear piece is stitched to the crotch
connector piece, positioned very low towards the bottom of the derriere,
giving a neat appearance and having very little effect on the outer
garment. Once more, when viewed from any direction and worn with outer
garments will always achieve a beautiful appearance.

On the other hand, in conventional designs, the stitching is positioned
higher at the rear of the derriere, thereby, the seams being highly
visible and bulky causing an undesirable effect on outer-garments.


This is unrelated to the fit and function of the panties/briefs themselves,
however, it has an important economic value to the consumer. In order to
assure the economy of the product, the decorative elastic cord is replaceable.
The fringe around the leg holes and waistline are folded back inwardly to
form a double layer section. The lower edge of the folded-back portion
is stitched along its entire circumference to form a passage. When the
outer decorative elastic tape is worn out, a new elastic cord can be inserted
through an opening into the passage for renewed support. This is termed
"the theory of Re-use or Repair". This technical theory has already been
registered as a utility model in Japan.


In order to secure the future of KNOW-HOW as a leading designer and
producer of undergarment technology, it is necessary to undertake further
study and investigations into a number of variables. These variables
include new types of fabrics available on the market, the quality of new
fabrics, and fabrics which will not adversely effect outer-garments.
Careful consideration will be given to the method of sewing as well as
to the type of machines used. It is vital to keep up with the volatile
fashion industry and market trends. Madison International Marketing Inc.,
and Mr. Hashimoto will endeavour to continually make revisions,
modifications and appropriate adjustments in their pattern technology.

Introduction to Madison's Know-How
Unique Features and Characteristics
The Outline of "Know-How"
Theoretical Background/Current Situation of "Know-How"